The time Romans destroyed SPAIN to extract gold
THEY ARE A PAUPER PAPER EMPIRE
This precious metal formed the basis of the Roman economy.
THE PAUPER PAPER AND THE BIT CON BIT COIN SIRE IS THE BASIS OF THE IMPERIAL AMERICAN YES WE CAN CAN IT IF YOU CAN IN CANNERY ROW ECONOMY
As Rome didn’t have any surplus crops and did not manufacture goods, gold was transformed into money and used for trading.
To ensure a constant supply, Roman legions, who were paid in gold, took control of the richest countries in the ancient world.
TO ENSURE OIL THE AMERICAN LEGIONS WHO WERE PAID IN PAUPER'S PAPER
TOOK CONTROL OF SOME OF THE RICHEST BANKS IN THE PAPER WORLD
In an Empire as powerful as the Roman Empire, the most important things were the struggle for power, spreading wealth, buying goods and financing armies.
AMERICAN EMPIRE ONLY NEED TO PUT PUT IN PUTIN IN ORDER
AND PUT IN THE CHINAMEN IN BUYING DOLLAR'S ORDER
The Roman Empire was very different from the Egyptian empire which probably didn’t have a large army.
THE AMERICANS HAD TO FINANCE A LARGER ARMY AND A SMALL EMPIRE
The Romans had to finance a very large empire.
After he had gained power in 31 B.C., Augustus decided to conquer the north-west of Spain, a region to which Rome under the Republic had not penetrated. The desire to mine for gold was chief among the reasons for this conquest – and in due course the new workings in the north-west proved more than comparable to the richest goldfields of previous civilizations. The output of these mines, according to Pliny, averaged in the region of 20,000 Roman pounds of gold each year. Here follows his account of the gold mining operations, almost certainly based on information from engineers in Spain because of the technique it describes of destroying mountains, the remains of which can still be seen today, for example at Las Medulas:
“In the world of today gold is found in three ways. … First, in the sediment of rivers, like the Spanish Tagus…, purer than any other gold and polished by attrition in the running stream. Otherwise it is dug out by sinking shafts, or gained by the destruction of mountains. Let me explain both methods. Those who seek gold first of all remove the surface earth which has indicated gold. Underneath is a deposit of sand: this is washed, and an estimate of yield is formed from the gold precipitate. Sometimes, by uncommon good luck, gold is found immediately in the topsoil. … The name ‘canalicium’ (or, according to others, ‘canaliense’) is given to gold mined from shafts. It appears shot through the marble gravels [i.e. quartz] … embracing the marble particles. The veins wander this way and that in channels along the sides of the shafts – hence the name ‘channel gold’. The earthy roof of these shafts is held up by wooden props. When they have dug out the ore they crush it and wash it and burn it and reduce it to powder. The refuse which is thrown out of the furnace – they call it ‘scoria’ – in the case of gold is crushed and heated again: the furnaces themselves are made from … a white earth like potter’s clay, for this is the only substance that can bear the blast of the furnace and the incandescence of the gold.
“The third method of mining may seem to surpass the achievements of the Giants. For by the light of lanterns mountains are hollowed out by galleries driven deeply into them. Lamps are also used to measure the length of the miner’s shifts, for many of them do not see daylight in months together. Mines of this kind they call ‘arrugiae’. Fissures can suddenly open up and crush the miners [i.e. with roof-falls] … and so arches are left at frequent intervals to hold the mountains up. In these mines – and in the shaft mines too – flint is met with, and the miners break it up by using first fire and then vinegar: more often, because the galleries thus become full of suffocating steam and smoke, they break it with iron rams of 150lb. weight. The pieces are carried out, night and day, on their shoulders in the darkness along a human chain: only the last in the chain see daylight. When all is ready they cut the ‘keystones’ of the arches, beginning with the innermost. The earth on top subsides, and gives a signal, and a solitary look-out on a peak of the hill observes it. With shouts and gestures he orders the mine to be evacuated, and he himself speeds down as well. The mountain then breaks and falls apart with a roar that the mind can hardly conceive, and with an equally incredible blast of air.”
However, as Pliny goes on to say, there was no certainty that gold-ore would be found in the debris, and even if it were there, the work that followed to extract it was very difficult. It required water, in strongly flowing streams of great volume, which often had to be brought great distances; this water was to wash the fallen debris of the mountain. Reservoirs were built in order to control the force with which the water fell onto the ore, and after the washing it had to be properly channelled away to prevent any loss of gold.
In other words, the method of sluicing rocky and sandy material in order to extract gold was being used on a massive scale starting with converting the mountains into that material!
Sluice boxes, filled with a shrub like rosemary to trap the gold, were built in the drainage trenches. The released pulverised rocks continued on their way ultimately to the sea, where it inevitably silted the estuaries.
These mining operations were of a colossal scale and complexity never seen before, the Romans managing to achieve these feats not only because they were astonishingly good engineers, but because in the north-west of Spain they had a plentiful and powerful supply of water.
An indication of the scale of these operations is found in one single shaft-mined area in Asturias, where it is estimated that 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 tons of rock were treated. From another in Galicia has been estimated that 5,000,000 tons of quartz were removed for crushing. The operation described above by Pliny as “surpassing the achievements of the Giants” involved extracting gold from very ancient, high-level alluvial terraces. Here the material was a clayey substance and relatively soft, and Pliny describes how water was conducted to these “collapsed mountains” in such a fashion that it could be played over the debris from great altitudes, between 400 and 800 feet to judge from the appearance of the present remains of typical sites.
As a result of the natural power which the Romans contrived to harness, they were able to treat vast expanses of territory for gold extraction. It has been estimated that during this lengthy period of Spanish mining that 500,000,000 tons of rock may have been removed – a figure which even if it is on the generous side, certainly bears out Pliny’s references to estuarial silting of the rivers which were the drainage channels for the mining effluent for this gigantic operation.
THE ALASKAN ORE USED TO BE RUSSIAN
THE SPANISH ORE USED TO BE ROMAN
IS A GOLD ROMANCE OR RIMANCE BY CHANCE